The word leičiai is used in the 14–16th century historical sources as an ethnonym for Lithuanians (however not Samogitians) and continues to be used, normally poetically or in historical contexts, within the Latvian language, which is closely related to Lithuanian. As World War I neared its end, Lithuania’s Act of Independence was signed on sixteen February 1918, declaring the founding of the trendy Republic of Lithuania. In the midst of the Second World War, Lithuania was first occupied by the Soviet Union after which by Nazi Germany. As World War II neared its end and the Germans retreated, the Soviet Union reoccupied Lithuania. On 11 March 1990, a 12 months before the formal dissolution of the Soviet Union, Lithuania turned the primary Baltic state to declare itself unbiased, resulting within the restoration of an independent State of Lithuania.
The authorities of the Lithuanian SSR adopted Soviet policy and seen the Prussian Lithuanians as Germanized Lithuanians. About 8,000 individuals have been repatriated from DP camps during 1945–50. However, their homes and farms weren’t returned as both Russians or Lithuanians had already occupied their property. Prussians who remained in the former Memel (Klaipėda) territory had been fired from their jobs and in any other case discriminated in opposition to.
World War II and after
A giant part of the Lithuanian inhabitants participated in the January Events. The Helsinki Group, which was based in Lithuania after the international conference in Helsinki (Finland), where the publish-WWII borders had been acknowledged, introduced a declaration for Lithuania’s independence on international radio station. The Helsinki Group knowledgeable the Western world about the state of affairs in the Soviet Lithuania and violations of human rights. With the start of the increased openness and transparency in government institutions and activities (glasnost) within the Soviet Union, on 3 June 1988, the Sąjūdis was established in Lithuania. The supporters of Sąjūdis joined movement’s groups throughout Lithuania.
Lithuanians did not read Prussian Lithuanian publications and vice versa; the cultural communication was very limited. Attempts to create a unified newspaper and customary orthography for all Lithuanian speakers at the beginning of the twentieth century had been unsuccessful. The German language utilized by Prussian Lithuanians belongs to the Low Prussian dialect of Low German, Mundart des Ostgebietes subdialect. The state of affairs was considerably better in the former Memel Territory however even there churches and cemeteries have been destroyed.
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Y-DNA chromosome bialelic markers have been found to be related between Lithuanians and Latvians and these two groups additionally had similarities in that respect with Estonians and Mari (Finno-Ugric peoples). Genetic testing lets you compare your genes with other households and ethnic teams. The database includes not solely Lithuanians but additionally Latvians, Poles, Russians, Swedes, and so many different kinds of folks. The “Lithuanian DNA”venture established by David Zincavage and later administered by Vidmantas Povilionis is open to all people who join Family Tree DNA who’ve Lithuanian ancestry paternally and/or maternally. Memellanderers defined themselves separately not by ethnicity however by birthplace.
The annual inhabitants development rate elevated by zero.3% in 2007. According to consultants, this quantity was largely influenced by the Soviets’ authority as a result lithuanian women of mostly Christian nation’s inhabitants previously thought of it as a extreme sin and had been afraid to take their lives.
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A main theater in Lithuania is the Lithuanian National Drama Theater. Another theatre, the Vilnius Little Theatre, was founded by Rimas Tuminas.
The thought of Lithuanian–Latvian unity was extra well-liked than thought of Lithuanian-Prussian Lithuanian unity during the Great Seimas of Vilnius, a convention held in 1905. After 1525, the final Grand Master of the Teutonic Order Albert became duke of Prussia and converted to Protestantism. By the desire of Albert, church services for Prussian Lithuanians were held in the Lithuanian language. Martynas Mažvydas was a zealous Protestant and urged citizens to cease all contact between Prussian Lithuanians and Lithuanians residing in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in a bid to curtail Catholic affect within the nation.
The peaceful demonstration confirmed the will of the folks of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia to break away from the USSR. Simonas Daukantas promoted a return to Lithuania’s pre-Commonwealth traditions, which he depicted as a Golden Age of Lithuania and a renewal of the native culture, based mostly on the Lithuanian language and customs. With these ideas in thoughts, he wrote already in 1822 a history of Lithuania in Lithuanian – Darbai senųjų lietuvių ir žemaičių (The Deeds of Ancient Lithuanians and Samogitians), although still not yet published at the moment. Narbutt, invoking the German scholarship, pointed out the connection between the Lithuanian and Sanskrit languages. A Lithuanian National Revival, inspired by the ancient Lithuanian history, language and tradition, laid the foundations of the modern Lithuanian nation and unbiased Lithuania.
With a mixture of Classicism, Sentimentalism and Romanticism, the Lithuanian literature of the primary half of the 19th century is represented by Maironis, Antanas Baranauskas, Simonas Daukantas and Simonas Stanevičius. During the Tsarist annexation of Lithuania within the nineteenth century, the Lithuanian press ban was implemented, which led to the formation of the Knygnešiai (Book smugglers) motion. This motion is considered the very purpose the Lithuanian language and literature survived until right now.